Byte Order in Computers

The byte is the smallest addressable unit in computer memory. When computers represent larger objects, they use multiple bytes. When storing these bytes in memory, the computer must decide in what order to store the data. Similarly, when transmitting large objects over a network, the order of transmission of multiple bytes is crucial. Connected computer systems must establish a unified way of transmitting multi-byte data to collaborate effectively.

This predetermined order for storing and transmitting multi-byte data is called byte order, also known as “endianess.” Understanding byte order is helpful for building lower-level programs and gaining a deeper understanding of computer systems.

Optimizing Speech Synthesis Quality with Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML)

Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) is a markup language used to control factors such as pauses, volume, pitch, speech rate, and pronunciation of nouns in speech synthesis. This language, standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) with XML as its foundation, is widely supported by many online speech synthesis services. Providers such as Google Cloud, AWS, Alibaba Cloud, among others, offer speech synthesis services that support SSML. Compared to text-to-speech (TTS) tasks performed using plain text, utilizing SSML allows for finer control over the synthesis of speech, thereby optimizing the quality of speech synthesis.

Create VM based on Ubuntu 20.04 and KVM cloudinit

Get Ready for the Disk Feast!

If one day you find yourself pondering how to make the most of a standalone server with virtualization support, consider employing Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) technology to partition your server. KVM is a solution for performing hardware-assisted full virtualization tasks on supported hardware devices.

The article uses hosts with multiple IPv4 addresses as an example to configure VMs based on KVM virtualization technology using Cloud-init configuration files.

Error Handling on Golang

Before learning the Go language, I believed that Python was the most convenient language for providing error and exception handling for programmers; after learning the Go language, my opinion has not changed at all…


This article references @ethancai’s article and @davecheney‘s keynote speech at Gocon Spring 2016, as well as several blog posts and documents on

The Go language offers a unique error handling experience compared to other programming languages. One of the distinctive features of the Go programming language is the frequent occurrence of the if err != nil statement block. Thanks to the multiple return values feature of Go functions, a function that may not always execute successfully can use an error type return value to indicate whether its execution process is in an abnormal state, for example:

f, err := os.Open("filename.ext")
if err != nil {

Setting up Hadoop Environment on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

In pioneer days they used oxen for heavy pulling, and when one ox couldn’t budge a log, they didn’t try to grow a larger ox …

Grace Murray Hopper, American computer scientist

In the Apache Software Foundation’s projects, besides the long-standing and widely used httpd web server, perhaps none is more widely used in the industry than Hadoop. Hadoop provides a reliable and scalable distributed computing solution for massive data. Over the years, we’ve heard some arguments about “Is Hadoop dead?” However, products from various cloud service providers(Invalid Link) indicate that Hadoop and its surrounding ecosystem are still experiencing benign development and continue to extend into more fields. To this day, Hadoop remains the best solution for distributed processing of massive data.

Why we have-pointer and reference types?

… Obviously, we can refer to an object by name, but in C++ (most) objects ‘‘have identity.’’ That is, they reside at a specific address in memory, and an object can be accessed if you know its address and its type …

Bjarne Stroustrup 《The C++ Programming Language》(Fourth Edition),Chapter 7.

During our last discussion, @Lollipop9z(Invalid Link)raised this interesting question. Due to their background in learning Python programming language, they were puzzled about why features like pointers and references are provided in languages like C++. In fact, many students who have studied programming languages that include concepts of pointers and/or references still lack a thorough understanding of the reasons behind the existence of these language elements. The following code snippet illustrates this using C++ as an example.